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Augsburg During the Reformation Era

An Anthology of Sources

Edited and Translated, with an Introduction, by B. Ann Tlusty

September 2012 - 352 pp.

Format ISBN Price Qty
Cloth 978-1-60384-842-8
Paper 978-1-60384-841-1
Examination 978-1-60384-841-1

Augsburg During the Reformation Era

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"Sixteenth-century Augsburg comes to life in this beautifully chosen and elegantly translated selection of original documents. Ranging across the whole panoply of social activity from the legislative reformation to work, recreation, and family life, these extracts make plain the subtle system of checks and balances, violence, and self-regulation that brought order and vibrancy to a sophisticated city community. Most of all we hear sixteenth-century people speak: in their petitions and complaints, their nervous responses under interrogation, their rage and laughter. Tlusty has done an invaluable service in crafting a collection that should be an indispensable part of the teaching syllabus."

     —Andrew Pettegree, University of St. Andrews

"This volume brings readers face-to-face with the experiences of the ordinary people living in Reformation-era Augsburg.

    "The translations are lively, vivid, captivating . . . the voices of these ordinary citizens are heard here as clearly as if they were sitting in the next room.
    "The introductions—to the volume overall, to each of its major sections, and to each of the individual documents—provide just as much information as is necessary. . . . Tlusty strikes just the right balance between breadth and depth. Outstanding."
     —Constantin Fasolt, University of Chicago

"An introduction to early modern German society. Tlusty reaps the harvest of scholars' mental shift over the last two generations, from concentration on those who wielded authority to those who were subject to them. The book contains a wealth of information and insight into the lives of ordinary people and the shoals of regulation upon which they might founder. Tlusty illuminates all of society in dynamic interaction."
     —Susan Karant-Nunn, University of Arizona


"An engaging collection of primary sources, many available in English for the first time, that offer readers glimpses into how the Reformation changed local communities. Augsburg provides a compelling location in which to examine the impact of the Reformation because of its early exposure to the new religious ideas and its importance to the political events of the Holy Roman Empire.
    "For many college students, the voices of Luther and Calvin dominate the study of the Reformation, but Tlusty's collection allows the reader to explore voices up and down the social ladder, revealing that both the Augsburg city council and the weavers shaped and were shaped by the new doctrines and practices.
    "Any reader of this collection [will] gain new understanding about the complexities of urban life during the early modern period . . . [it] allows students . . . to explore many themes of social and cultural history during the Reformation.  
    "Tlusty's compilation of sources offers a fresh view of the Reformation through documents previously accessible only to one able to venture into the archives."
    —History: Reviews of New Books



B. Ann Tlusty is Professor of History, Bucknell University.




Table of Contents:

General Introduction
   Early Modern Conventions and Editorial Principles
   Understanding Early Modern Currency
Map of Augsburg during the Reformation Era

Chapter One. Popular Responses to Reform, 1520-1554

I.  Unrest in the city
1.1.  Witnesses to Claus Hirschman, Bishop’s Spy in the Church of St. Anna
1.2  A Decree against Iconoclasm
1.3  Chronicler Clemens Sender Describes the Protest of 1524
1.4  Hans Kag and Hans Speiser, Executed for Rebellious Talk in 1524
1.5  The Strappado, from the Sixteenth-Century Law Code Layman's Mirror (Illustration)
1.6  Demands of the protesters in 1524
1.7  The Interrogation of Anna Fassnacht

II.  Fiery preachers
1.8  Of serfdom or Servitude: Advice from Godly Laws on How Lords and Their People Should Behave
       as Christians. Preached by Dr. Urbanus Rhegius in Augsburg, 1525
1.9  Trying to Silence Otmar Nachtigal, Priest at St. Moritz, for Inflammatory Anti-Protestant Preaching:
       Entries from City Council Minutes
1.10  Defense of the Augsburg Preachers against a Letter from Doctor Martin Luther
1.11  Attempts to Tone Down Heated Sermons, 1554

III.  Establishing Protestant Discipline
1.12  Punishment of Anabaptists, 1528  
1.13  Statement of Agnes Vogel, Interrogated for Anabaptism, 1528  
1.14  Religious Debate in the Street, 1529  
1.15  Chronicler and Brewer Georg Siedler Describes the Reforms of 1537  
1.16  An Honorable Council of the City of Augsburg’s Decree to Establish a Christian,
         Disciplined, and Decent Life
1.17  Decree Posted at the City Gate to Attend Sermons on Holidays

Chapter Two. Enforcing the Peace of Augsburg
I.  Enforcing the Peace through Censorship
2.1  Decree on Slanderous Songs, June 14, 1579

II.  Opposition to the New Calendar
2.2  Letter of Protest Circulated in the Fall of 1583
2.3  Trials for Spreading Dangerous Rumors in the Fall of 1583
2.4  Punishments of Participants in the Riot of 1584  
2.5  Inquisition by the Imperial Commission in the summer of 1584
2.6  Revised Defense Orders for City Captains, 1584
2.7  Georg Müller Describes the Process of Confessionalization in Augsburg
III.  Continuing Debate
2.8  Interrogation of Sabina Preiss for the “Müller Song,” 1588
2.9  Interrogation of David Altenstetter and Martin Künle for Unconventional Religious Thinking
2.10  Ban on Assembly during the Imperial Occupation, 1629
2.11  Interrogation of Thomas Schueler, Weaver, for Practicing Lutheranism during
         the Imperial occupation, 1630
2.12  A Gospel Parody, 1631

Chapter Three. A Society of Orders

I.  Enforcing Status
3.1  Clothing Ordinance, 1582
3.2  Wedding Ordinance, 1599

II.  Scenes from Life at the Top
3.3  The Lords’ Drinking Room Society is Established in 1412
3.4  The Silesian knight Hans von Schweinichen Describes Elite Hospitality in Augsburg

III.  Providing for the Poor
3.5  A Foundation for the Fuggerei
3.6  Ordinance for the Alms Lords and Administrators of the Needy Poor, 1522
3.7  A New Poor Law, 1541
3.8  Visitation of the Fuggerei in 1624

IV.  Scenes from life at the bottom
3.9  Punishment of Beggars
3.10  Interrogation of a Beggar Boy in 1558
3.11  Questions Put to a Poor Sinner

Chapter Four. Marriage, Household, and Sexuality

I.  The debate over Clerical Marriage
4.1  Description of a Priestly Marriage in 1523
4.2  Urbanus Rhegius, A sermon about Marriage and How it is Useful, Necessary,
       Good, the Right of Everyone, 1525

II.  Controlling Sex and Marriage
4.3  Prostitution before the Reformation
4.4  Control of Sex and Marriage in the Police Ordinance of 1537
4.5  Appolonia Hefele, Innkeeper’s wife, Describes the Marriage of her Parents
4.6  Seventeenth-Century Fines for Fornication by Unmarried People
4.7  A Secret Promise of Marriage

III.  Households in Disorder
4.8  Establishment of the Marriage Court in 1537
4.9  Hans Wagner, Married Weaver, Consorts with Prostitutes in 1592
4.10  Interrogation of Ulrich Hemerle for Poor Householding, 1592
4.11  Records of Discipline for Poor Householding
4.12  A Wagon-Maker Takes an Oath to House Well
4.13  Fines and Punishments from the “Books of Adultery”
4.14  Impotence Leads to a Failed Marriage

IV.  Strategies for Suppressing Homosexuality
4.15  Evidence of a Gay Subculture during the Reformation
4.16  Sodomy Accusation in a Journeyman’s Hostel

V.  Dealing with Sexual Deviance
4.17  Arrest of a Pedophile Priest in 1525
4.18  A Day-Laborer Is Burned at the Stake for Bestiality

Chapter Five. Work and trade

I.  Regulation and Self-Regulation of Workers
5.1  Imperial Decree on Journeymen and Apprentices, 1548
5.2  Oaths for City Employees
5.3  From the Butcher’s Craft Ordinance, 1549
5.4  Rules Governing the Brewing Craft, 1568-1648
5.5  Establishment of a Craft Hostel for the Comb-Maker’s Craft, 1597,
        from the Chronicle of Brewer Georg Siedler
5.6  Clockwork Erected on the Weights and Measures Hall, 1600

II.  Complaints and Disputes
5.7  Arrests for Complaining about Work
5.8  A Matter of Dishonor among Butchers, 1585: The Case of Jacob Glantz
5.9  Hans Krieger, Cabinetmaker, Is Questioned for Insulting his Guild Principles
5.10  Margarete Ammann, Healer, Defends Her Request to Cure Women in “Secret Places”

III.  Income and Expenses
5.11  Working Conditions for Civic Construction Workers, 1597
5.12  Typical Expenses for a Well-Ordered Household, 1613

Chapter Six. Sports, Entertainments, and the Control of Leisure

I.  The control of Leisure
6.1  Controlling Leisure During the Reformation
6.2  Wartime Decree against Frivolity, 1631
6.3  Punishments for Frivolous Behavior

II. Martial Sports
6.4  An Invitation to a Shooting Match, 1567
6.5  Two Shooters from Ingolstadt Defend Their Honor as Marksmen, 1554
6.6  Entertainments at a Shooting Match (Illustration)
6.7  Accidental Death at a Fencing Match, 1595
6.8  Chronicler Georg Siedler Describes Martial Entertainments, 1600

III.  The Dangers of Male Sociability: Fights and Tavern Comportment
6.9  A Swordfight in the Street, 1591
6.10  A Fight at a Wedding, 1600
IV.  Music and Other Entertainments
6.11  Dancing and Piping among the Poor, 1593
6.12  Selections from “A New Song”, Made by Christof Halbritter, Tailor and Singer, 1594
6.13  An Elephant Visits Augsburg

Chapter Seven. Ethnicity

I.  Imperial Law
7.1  Imperial Recess regarding Jews and Gypsies, 1530

II.  Jews
7.2  Mandates Governing Contact between Jews and Christians
7.3  Requests to the City of Augsburg from Jews for Safe Passage
7.4  The Case of Andreas Salomon: Converted Jew and Medical Practitioner, 1566
7.5  Jews Arrested for Passing by the City in 1566
7.6  Simon, Court Jew from Vienna, 1585
7.7  Expulsions of suspicious Jews

III. Gypsies and other travelers
7.8  Gypsy Women Before the Courts
7.9  Petrus Phocas from Constantinople and his Entourage Visit an Augsburg inn, 1593

IV.  Far-away Populations
7.10  A Description of Natives from the New World, 1505
7.11 Natives of India with Camel and Elephant, 1508 (Illustration)

Chapter Eight. Ritual and Ceremony
I. Negotiating Religious Ritual
8.1  Artisans Protest Catholic Ritual in 1524
8.2  An Incident during the Lord’s Supper at St. George’s Church, 1527
8.3  Suppressing Catholic Church Ritual during the Reformation
8.4  Two Conflicting Versions of an Exorcism in 1568
8.5  Controlling Catholic Rituals in the Countryside: Excerpts from the Bavarian Police Ordinance of 1616

II. Rites of power
8.6  The Citizens Swear an Oath to the New City Council, 1548
8.7  The Citizens Pay Homage to Emperor Ferdinand I, 1559
8.8  Witness Oath for Swearing in at Court
8.9  Rituals of Execution

III. Rituals of Socialization and Celebration
8.10  Ban on the Celebratory Firing of Guns
8.11  A Celebratory Gunshot during Carnival Goes Awry, 1587
8.12  Expressing and Settling Political Differences, 1584
8.13  Exceptions to Tavern Bans for Ritual Drinks

Chapter Nine. Magic and Popular Religion

9.1  Anna Laminit, Spiritual Huckster
9.2  A Case of Treasure Hunting, 1544
9.3  A Case of Possession from the Chronicle of Paul Hektor Mair, 1563
9.4  The Case of Thomas Trummer, Amateur Sorcerer, 1577
9.5  Catharina Bretzler, Herbalist and Seller of Charms, 1590
9.6  A Love Potion Leads to Adultery, 1590
9.7  Elisabeth Rormoser, Seamstress and Finder of Lost Things, 1592

Chapter Ten. Dealing with War and Catastrophe

I.  Weather and Inflation
10.1  The Effects of Inflation from the Perspective of a Brewer Georg Siedler
10.2  Inflation (Augsburg, c. 1621) (Illustration)
10.3  Satan Causes a Storm, 1586 (Illustration)

II.  Plague
10.4  Andreas Osiander:  A Sermon Based on the Ninety-First Psalm, c. 1534: How and to
         Where a Christian Should Flee the Terrible Scourge of the Plague
10.5  A Plague Year in Augsburg, 1563
10.6  Augsburg Physician Achilles Gasser’s Short Instruction on the Plague, 1564

III.  War and peace
10.7  Preparing for the Worst: Guard Ordinance for the Common Citizenry, 1540
10.8  Emperor Charles V Occupies Augsburg, 1547
10.9  Complaints about Quartering of Troops in Private Homes, 1551
10.10  The Fortunes and Misfortunes of War: The Chronicle of Protestant Schoolmaster
           Ludwig Hainzelmann
10.11  Architect Elias Holl Requests Relief from Excessive Quartering, 1635
10.12  Religious Parity Is Established in Augsburg 

Timeline of Events: 1517-1650
Bibliography of English-Language Works Consulted and Suggested Reading
Select Bibliography of Additional Primary Sources Available in English

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